Vim has an inbuilt terminal, which you can start with
:terminal. That means that you don't have to leave your Vim editor to run commands in the shell.
Sometimes, it's still useful.
If you quickly want to switch to your shell, suspend the Vim editor with
Ctrl+z. That sends the process into the background (on Linux).
Now you have access to your standard terminal and can run commands.
jobs -l to see a list of the background processes.
fg to bring the last background process into the foreground (“re-open” Vim). Or type
fg %<number> to resume a different process with the id
The commands are part of
bash. They are called job control (Linux).